Iron. Iron deficiency anemia
Many people do not get enough iron with food and do not even suspect that this may be the cause of their rapid fatigue, distraction and weak resistance to infections. Overdose is no less dangerous.
Iron — what is it
Iron preparation is an iron-containing additive.
This most important metal for us — iron — in the body of an adult male is about 4 g, and a woman is 2.5 g. It is represented by two forms: heme — in the composition of hemoglobin and myoglobin, i. e. red pigments, respectively, erythrocytes (red blood cells) and muscle fibers, account for 70%. The rest, non-heme, is a component of various enzymes.
Useful properties and the role of iron in the human body
Iron is involved in many vital processes. As part of hemoglobin and myoglobin, it provides oxygen transport by blood and its storage by muscle fibers. In any cell, iron participates in the oxidation of substances with the release of energy. Finally, as already mentioned, it is necessary for the work of a variety of enzymes, as well as certain components of the immune system.
In the body, iron metabolism goes on a closed cycle. Its daily losses are small (1-2 mg/day), except for menstruation, which deprive women of up to 12-15 mg of this metal per month (an additional 0.4-0.5 mg/day).
Iron needs are increased during the growth period (before reaching puberty), during pregnancy and intense physical exertion. Both in the composition of food and in the form of additives, it is poorly absorbed. The body uses 25% of iron from meat and fish (heme) and only 1-10% from other food sources (eggs, plant products). We store this metal in the liver, bone marrow and spleen, but these reserves are mobilized only if there is a shortage of it in food.
|For your information|
|• Keep all iron-containing preparations out of the reach of children: accidentally swallowing 5 tablets with a high concentration of this metal, the baby may be poisoned to death.
• Iron-containing additives reduce the effectiveness of some medications, in particular antibiotics. If you have already been prescribed medications, consult your doctor about any supplements.
• For women, even with a weak iron deficiency, increased chilliness is characteristic.
The main benefit of iron
Adequate intake of iron supports strength, strengthens the immune system and stimulates intellectual abilities. Even a small deficiency of it (by no means threatening anemia) it can make it difficult for adults to concentrate and reduce academic performance in children. Do not get sick and be healthy together with infovitamin.ru.
Iron deficiency anemia — our iron needs
The RSN (recommended daily allowance) is 9 mg for men and women after menopause. Before it, women need 16 mg/day. During pregnancy, additional amounts of iron should be prescribed by a doctor.
– Disadvantage. If the food does not provide the recommended amount of iron (for example, with vegetarianism or a starvation diet), or if you lose too much of it (with abnormal menstruation, gastric microbleeds, often caused by antiarthritis medications, with cancer), the internal reserves of the body gradually deplete it.
At first it is imperceptible, but sooner or later red blood cells begin to suffer. Iron deficiency anemia develops, the symptoms of which include loss of strength, pallor, fatigue even with small loads, palpitations and reduced resistance to infections.
+ Excess. According to some reports, an overdose of iron-containing drugs (especially in combination with vitamin C) increases the risk of «oxidative stress» and the accumulation of free radicals, which is fraught with cardiovascular disorders and the development of certain types of cancer (primarily colon). Excess iron is especially dangerous in hemochromatosis (a hereditary disease leading to its increased accumulation in tissues), as well as in childhood.
|Do you know?|
|• If tomatoes or other acidic foods are cooked in an iron-containing dish, the iron leaches out of it and gets into the food.|
Indications for the use of iron preparations
• Iron deficiency anemia.
• Vegetarian food.
• Pregnancy and abnormal menstruation; other cases — for medical reasons.
|• Avoid supplements containing only concentrated iron unless specifically prescribed by your doctor.
• If you are being treated with medications, take any vitamins and supplements only with the permission of a doctor.
|• Iron sulfate, one of the most common and cheap additives, can cause constipation and stomach pains. Fumarate and bivalent iron gluconate are usually better tolerated. Its source can also serve as tonics sold in dietary departments with extracts of plants rich in this element.|
Methods of application of iron preparations
Unless the doctor recommends otherwise, iron can be taken only in the form of multivitamin or polymineral supplements, without exceeding the RSN. Anemia requires accurate diagnosis, and treatment should be directed to the cause of this disease. The iron prescribed by the doctor is usually divalent and is represented by its salts — sulfate, fumarate or gluconate. As a rule, its dose is 30 mg/day in 1-3 doses. Women who do not suffer from iron deficiency after menopause and men infovitamin.ru advises it is better to choose multivitamin supplements that do not contain it.
• Reception scheme
If you don't have enough iron, snack on raisins.
Iron is best absorbed on an empty stomach. However, if its preparations cause you stomach pains, take them with a meal, preferably with a small amount of meat and a product that is rich in vitamin C (broccoli, orange juice), which facilitates the absorption of this metal.
Food sources of ironExcellent sources of iron are liver, black pudding, meat and fish. There is also a lot of it in shellfish (scallops, oysters, mussels). Infovitamin.ru It reminds that vegetarians need to introduce legumes, leafy greens, dried fruits (primarily dried apricots and raisins), eggs and iron-enriched flakes into the diet.